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論文要旨(エクジソン)

Phytochemistry
Volume 57, Issue 3, June 2001, Pages 401-407
Ecdysteroids and bufadienolides from Helleborus torquatus (Ranunculaceae)
Yanhui Meng a, 1, Pensri Whiting a, Vladimir Imageik b, Huw H. Rees c and Laurence Dinan a
a Department of Biological Sciences, University of Exeter, Hatherly Laboratories, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, Devon, EX4 4PS, UK
b Department of Chemistry, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter, Devon, EX4 4QD, UK
c School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Life Sciences Building, Crown Street, Liverpool, L69 7ZB, UK

Abstract
Three bufadienolides, hellebortin A (5-[β-Image-glucopyranosyloxy]-10,14,16-trihydroxy-19-nor-{5β,10β,14β,16β}-bufa-3,20,22-trienolide [1]), hellebortin B (5-[β-Image-glucopyranosyloxy]-3,4-epoxy-14-hydroxy-19-oxo-bufa-20,22-dienolide [2]) and hellebortin C (5-[β-Image-glucopyranosyloxy]-3,4-epoxy-10,14-dihydroxy-19-nor-bufa-20,22-dienolide [3]), together with 20-hydroxyecdysone 3-O-β-Image-glucoside (4) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (5) have been isolated by bioassay- and RIA-directed HPLC analyses of a methanol extract of the seeds of Helleborus torquatus. The structure and relative stereochemistry of the novel bufadienolide hellebortin A (1) and the structures of hellebortin B (2) and hellebortin C (3) were determined unambiguously by comprehensive analyses of their 1D and 2D NMR data. These five compounds are isolated from Helleborus torquatus for the first time. The biological activities of compound 1, 4 and 5 as ecdysteroid agonists and antagonists have been assessed.


Biochemical Systematics and Ecology
Volume 30, Issue 2, February 2002, Pages 171-182
Chemotaxonomic significance of ecdysteroid agonists and antagonists in the Ranunculaceae: phytoecdysteroids in the genera Helleborus and Hepatica
Laurence Dinan, Tamara Savchenko and Pensri Whiting
Hatherly Laboratories, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, EX4 4PS, UK

Abstract
We present here a survey of ca. 100 species within 16 genera of the family Ranunculaceae for the presence of ecdysteroid agonist and antagonist activities in methanolic seed extracts. The levels of phytoecdysteroids (agonists) have been quantified by radioimmunoassay and bioassay. A few samples possess weak antagonistic activity. Phytoecdysteroids are most prominently associated with the genus Helleborus. In this genus, species fall into two distinct classes: those with low or undetectable ecdysteroid levels and those with high ecdysteroid levels. The relationship between ecdysteroid levels and the biology of the plants in this genus is discussed. Additionally, the extract of Hepatica triloba Chaix seeds contains a significant level of phytoecdysteroids. Several other species contain low levels of phytoecdysteroids, as detected by radioimmunoassay. Together with our previous data on the genera Anemone and Pulsatilla, this survey allows us to present an overview of the distribution of ecdysteroids in this family.
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論文要旨(果実形成等)

Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 53, No. 376, pp. 1949-1957, September 1, 2002
Developing fruit direct post-floral morphogenesis in Helleborus niger L.
Branka Salopek-Sondi1, Maja Kovac2, Tatjana Prebeg1 and Volker Magnus3,1
1 Ruðer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka c. 54, PO Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb, Croatia
2 National Institute of Biology, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia

Abstract
In fertilized flowers of Helleborus niger L., the sepals (the showy elements of the perianth at anthesis) grow, spread, and turn green, and the peduncles elongate. These processes did not proceed to completion when the pistils were removed at the bud stage, but could be restored by the application of plant growth regulators. Cytokinins and gibberellins stimulated the formation of well-developed chloroplasts in, and spreading of, the sepals; the gibberellin, GA3, and the auxin, 4-chloroindole-3-
acetic acid, promoted peduncle elongation. In fruit-bearing flowers, on the other hand, paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis, reduced chlorophyll formation in the sepals, reversed sepal spreading, and inhibited peduncle elongation. Of the endogenous growth regulators in developing fruit, the following cytokinins were identified: zeatin, dihydrozeatin, N6-(2-isopentenyl)adenine and their ribosides and 9-glucosides. Zeatin riboside drastically increased in abundance (about 200 times), shortly after fertilization, when chlorophyll accumulation in the sepals occurred at the fastest rate, and remained the most prominent identified cytokinin until seed ripening.
オリジナル


Journal of Experimental Botany 2006 57(10):2237-2247
Cytokinins in the perianth, carpels, and developing fruit of Helleborus niger L.
Petr Tarkowski1 *, Danuse Tarkowská2, Ondrej Novák2, Snjezana Mihaljevic3, Volker Magnus3, Miroslav Strnad2 and Branka Salopek-Sondi3
1Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umeå, Sweden
2Laboratory of Growth Regulators, Palacky University and IEB ASCR, Olomouc, Czech Republic
3Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia

Abstract
Reproductive development in the Christmas rose (Helleborus niger L.) differs from that in commonly investigated model plants in two important aspects: (i) the perianth develops a photosynthetic system, after fertilization, and persists until seed ripening; and (ii) the ripe seed contains an immature embryo which continues to mature off the mother plant. The possible roles of cytokinins in these processes are investigated here by analysing extracts of the perianth and the carpels/maturing fruit prepared during anthesis and four stages of post-floral development. trans-Zeatin, dihydrozeatin, N6-({Delta}2-isopentenyl)adenine, and their ribosides were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Single ion monitoring in the presence of deuterated internal standards demonstrated the additional presence of the corresponding riboside-5'-monophosphates, O-glucosides, and 9-glucosides, and afforded quantitative data on the whole set of endogenous cytokinins. Fruit cytokinins were mostly localized in the seeds. Their overall concentrations increased dramatically during early seed development and remained high for 6–8 weeks, until shortly before seed ripening (the last time point covered in this work). Overall cytokinin levels in the perianth did not change markedly in the period covered, but the level of N6-({Delta}2-isopentenyl)adenine-type cytokinins appeared to increase slightly and transiently during the greening phase. The perianths of unpollinated or depistillated flowers, which survived, but did not pass through the complete greening process, contained significantly less cytokinins than observed in fruit-bearing flowers. This suggests that perianth greening requires defined cytokinin levels and supports the role of the developing fruit in their maintenance.
オリジナル


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第57回関東東海花の展覧会

ゲート

2008年2月2日 池袋のサンシャインシティ文化会館で開催された、第57回関東東海花の展覧会を見てきました。生産者が出品した切り花や鉢花の品評会で、今年の当番県は栃木県でした。

主 催:
栃木県、東京都、神奈川県、埼玉県、千葉県、静岡県、愛知県、茨城県、群馬県、岐阜県、三重県、山梨県、社団法人日本花き生産協会、社団法人日本花き卸売市場協会、社団法人日本生花商協会、社団法人日本生花通信配達協会、社団法人日本種苗協会、社団法人日本フラワーデザイナー協会
後 援:
農林水産省、株式会社サンシャインシティ
開催内容:
(1)品評会 約2,150点
   部 門 カーネーション、きく、ばら、球根切花、
       一般切花、枝物、花壇用苗物、観葉植物、一般鉢物、洋らん
(2)フラワーデザインコンテスト 約180点
   部 門 コサージ、ブーケ、アレンジメント
(3)主催団体による花の装飾展示
(4)栃木県特別展示
(5)フラワーアレンジメント教室
(6)花のプレゼント、販売及び即売会の実施
(7)産地紹介コーナー
詳細はこちらのサイトへ

以下、気になった花を紹介していきます。

関東東海3

花の展示会といえば、やはりお客さんは中高年の女性が主体になりますね。
手前に見えるハボタンは茎が長く伸びた「おどり葉牡丹」というやつで、寄せ植えになっています。一見バラの切り花のようです。

関東東海4

キンギョソウの切り花。長いですね!

関東東海5

ガーベラの切り花。ひまわりのような形の花は大好き!

関東東海9

切りバラ 'グロリアスイルゼ' 緑がかった花弁が清々しい。

関東東海8

切枝部門。そろそろ桃の花の季節ですね。もちろん加温して開花させるのですが。
人の背丈ほどあってビックリです。

関東東海6

プリムラ ポリアンサ(ジュリアンハイブリッド)のポット苗
プリムラは大好き! 白、黄、オレンジ、赤、桃、青、複色・・・全ての色があります。

関東東海7

バナナの仲間(バショウ科)の地湧金蓮の鉢植え!開花しそうな株を鉢植えにするのでしょうか? いずれにしても実物は初めて見ました。灯台みたい。

関東東海10

シネラリアの鉢植え。このブルーは美しい!!!

関東東海1

芳香シクラメン'香りの舞い'
埼玉県育成となっていますので、たぶん園芸試験場の作出品種でしょう。常緑の原種プルプラッセンスと園芸品種(原種パーシカムから改良されています)との種間雑種です。論文にもなっていますから、詳細は以下を参照ください。
Hiroshi Ishizaka and Junjiro Uematsu
Euphytica 82 (1) 31-37 (1995)
Interspecific hybrids of Cyclamen persicum Mill. and C. purpurascens Mill. produced by ovule culture
Summary> Interspecific crosses were made to introduce the scent of flowers of C. purpurascens into C. persicum cultivars and ovule culture was used to rescue the abortive hybrid embryos. Cultivars of C. persicum diploid (CPD, 2n=2×=48) and C. persicum tetraploid (CPT, 2n=4×=96) were the pistillate parents and wild species of C. purpurascens (CP, 2n=34) were staminate parents. After pollination, crossed ovaries were collected periodically and examined using paraffin sections. Histological observations suggested that both hybrid ovules of CPD x CP and CPT x CP should be transferred to culture medium 35 days after pollination. Based up on this observation, crossed ovaries were collected 28 days after pollination and ovules with placenta were transferred to MS (1962) medium containing 3% sucrose. These ovules were cultured in the dark at 25° C. The hybrids (2n=41) derived from CPD x CP had the scent of C. purpurascens, whereas the hybrids (2n=65) derived from CPT x CP had the scent of C. persicum. Although both hybrids had complete genomes from the parents and produced a few viable pollen grains, they failed to yield viable seeds by self- and cross-pollination with fertile pollen grains of C. persicum cultivars.

香気成分分析もされています。
Hiroshi Ishizaka, Hideki Yamada and Keiji Sasaki
Scientia Horticulturae 94(1-2) 125-135 (2002)
Volatile compounds in the flowers of Cyclamen persicum, C. purpurascens and their hybrids
Abstract> Headspace samples collected from entire flowers of Cyclamen persicum, C. purpurascens and their interspecific hybrids were analyzed using gas chromatograph coupled with mass selective detector. The chemical constitution of volatile compounds of C. persicum (2n=2x=48, AA or 4x=96, AAAA) was distinguished by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, whereas that of volatile compounds of C. purpurascens (2n=2x=34, BB) was distinguished by alcohols, aldehydes and esters of monoterpene or an aromatic class. The chemical constitution of volatile compounds in the hybrid (2n=41, AB) the amphidiploid (2n=82, AABB) and the sesquidiploid (2n=58, ABB) closely resembled that of volatile compounds in C. purpurascens. By contrast, the chemical constitution of volatile compounds in the sesquidiploid (2n=65, AAB) resembled that of volatile compounds in C. persicum. Flowers of diploid or tetraploid C. persicum had a woody or powdery fragrance, whereas those of C. purpurascens had a rose- or hyacinth-like fragrance. Flowers of the hybrid AB, the amphidiploid AABB and the sesquidiploid ABB had a fragrance resembling that of C. purpurascens, whereas those of the sesquidiploid AAB had a fragrance resembling that of C. persicum. Based on the present analyses, the relationship between the expression of volatile compounds and genome constitution is discussed.

関東東海2

おっと、こちらはイオンビーム育種で出来たオステオスペルマム 'ヴィエントフラミンゴ'です!群馬県農業技術センター、日本原子力 研究開発機構、栽培農家の共同研究によって開発されました。元の品種'マザーシンフォニー'は黄色一色なのですが、渋いオレンジ色に変化していますね。元品種の培養葉片に炭素イオンを照射し、突然変異を起こさせた後、不定芽を再分化、3000個体の中から得られた1個体とのこと。花色の変異は全部で30個体得られたようです。イオンビームによる変異はDNAの大きな欠損によるもので、他の変異原処理に比べるとかなり暴力的な処理方法ですね。どのような遺伝子が欠損して花色が変化したのか知りたいです。

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Author:conocono
花好きおじさんの園芸と植物に関するあれこれ。
たまに作り話もあるので要注意。

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