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論文要旨(果実形成等)

Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 53, No. 376, pp. 1949-1957, September 1, 2002
Developing fruit direct post-floral morphogenesis in Helleborus niger L.
Branka Salopek-Sondi1, Maja Kovac2, Tatjana Prebeg1 and Volker Magnus3,1
1 Ruðer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka c. 54, PO Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb, Croatia
2 National Institute of Biology, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia

Abstract
In fertilized flowers of Helleborus niger L., the sepals (the showy elements of the perianth at anthesis) grow, spread, and turn green, and the peduncles elongate. These processes did not proceed to completion when the pistils were removed at the bud stage, but could be restored by the application of plant growth regulators. Cytokinins and gibberellins stimulated the formation of well-developed chloroplasts in, and spreading of, the sepals; the gibberellin, GA3, and the auxin, 4-chloroindole-3-
acetic acid, promoted peduncle elongation. In fruit-bearing flowers, on the other hand, paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis, reduced chlorophyll formation in the sepals, reversed sepal spreading, and inhibited peduncle elongation. Of the endogenous growth regulators in developing fruit, the following cytokinins were identified: zeatin, dihydrozeatin, N6-(2-isopentenyl)adenine and their ribosides and 9-glucosides. Zeatin riboside drastically increased in abundance (about 200 times), shortly after fertilization, when chlorophyll accumulation in the sepals occurred at the fastest rate, and remained the most prominent identified cytokinin until seed ripening.
オリジナル


Journal of Experimental Botany 2006 57(10):2237-2247
Cytokinins in the perianth, carpels, and developing fruit of Helleborus niger L.
Petr Tarkowski1 *, Danuse Tarkowská2, Ondrej Novák2, Snjezana Mihaljevic3, Volker Magnus3, Miroslav Strnad2 and Branka Salopek-Sondi3
1Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umeå, Sweden
2Laboratory of Growth Regulators, Palacky University and IEB ASCR, Olomouc, Czech Republic
3Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia

Abstract
Reproductive development in the Christmas rose (Helleborus niger L.) differs from that in commonly investigated model plants in two important aspects: (i) the perianth develops a photosynthetic system, after fertilization, and persists until seed ripening; and (ii) the ripe seed contains an immature embryo which continues to mature off the mother plant. The possible roles of cytokinins in these processes are investigated here by analysing extracts of the perianth and the carpels/maturing fruit prepared during anthesis and four stages of post-floral development. trans-Zeatin, dihydrozeatin, N6-({Delta}2-isopentenyl)adenine, and their ribosides were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Single ion monitoring in the presence of deuterated internal standards demonstrated the additional presence of the corresponding riboside-5'-monophosphates, O-glucosides, and 9-glucosides, and afforded quantitative data on the whole set of endogenous cytokinins. Fruit cytokinins were mostly localized in the seeds. Their overall concentrations increased dramatically during early seed development and remained high for 6–8 weeks, until shortly before seed ripening (the last time point covered in this work). Overall cytokinin levels in the perianth did not change markedly in the period covered, but the level of N6-({Delta}2-isopentenyl)adenine-type cytokinins appeared to increase slightly and transiently during the greening phase. The perianths of unpollinated or depistillated flowers, which survived, but did not pass through the complete greening process, contained significantly less cytokinins than observed in fruit-bearing flowers. This suggests that perianth greening requires defined cytokinin levels and supports the role of the developing fruit in their maintenance.
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花好きおじさんの園芸と植物に関するあれこれ。
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